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对新ACT官方样题二的深度分析和范文写作思路

2015-10-20 16:13

来源:新东方南京学校

作者:邢丹淳

  2015年10月24日,各位小伙伴将迎来新一场ACT考试。在此,新东方网留学频道与各位分享新ACT官方样题二的深度分析和范文写作思路,希望对大家应对10月24日ACT考试有所帮助。

  样题:

  Most people want to be healthy, and most people want as much freedom as possible to do the things they want. Unfortunately, these two desires sometimes conflict. For example, smoking is prohibited from most public places, which restricts the freedom of some individuals for the sake of the health of others. Likewise, car emissions are regulated in many areas in order to reduce pollution and its health risks to others, which in turn restricts some people’s freedom to drive the vehicles they want. In a society that values both health and freedom, how do we best balance the two? How should we think about conflicts between public health and individual freedom?

  Perspective One

  Our society should strive to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people. When the freedom of the individual interferes with that principle, freedom must be restricted.

  Perspective Two

  Nothing in society is more valuable than freedom. Perhaps physical health is sometimes improved by restricting freedom, but the cost to the health of our free society is far too great to justify it.

  Perspective Three

  The right to avoid health risks is a freedom, too. When we allow individual behavior to endanger others, we’ve damaged both freedom and health.

  深度分析以及范文写作思路:

  1. 在面对新ACT作文的时候,首先的第一步不应该是写,而是仔细分析( Analytical Thinking),并划出关键词。比如说,在这篇全新的样题中,阅读部分主要讲的是公众健康和个人自由的博弈。所以可以划出HEALTHY, FREEDOM等词。这时脑海中也需要开始积极的搜索关于这方面的单词,句型和一些模糊的例子

  Example:

  Personal freedom 益处: liberation/ emancipation, carefree,creativity/ proactivity…

  弊端:Violation/jeopardizing of law/ ecosystem…

  2.分析完毕以后,需要开始列出详细的提纲,这一步对于新ACT写作的逻辑性有着非常重要的作用。很多学生在写议论文和文学评论时喜欢即兴发挥。却不知道,这样做会让文章变成“意识流”和散文式的写作从而得到很低的分数。

  (a)在列提纲的初期,很多同学的大脑会产生“短路”现象:在面对如法律,自由,环保等不熟悉的题材时,无法有系统和有洞察力(insightfulness)的给出流畅观点。这时候,不妨以提出一些设问句为线索,来寻找写作的灵感。

  比如说:What is freedom in the first place?

  Why is public health critically important?

  Why is preserving our eco-system imperative?

  What would happen if everyone is granted 100% freedom?

  (b)当这些问题被提出以后,它们的答案可以成为即将开始写作的灵感

  这些答案可以是:

  The “absolute” freedom fails to exist.

  People would never share the same views and perspectives all the time.

  Without paying attention to public health, disastrous consequences can be triggered: deadly pandemics such as Aids can derive from the action of “personal freedom” – unsafe sex. Hundreds of thousands of people were infected in 1980s.

  When deadly virus such as SARS and Ebola came, if the virus carriers pursued “personal freedom” by walking freely in public, their freedom would cost many of other innocent residents’ lives.

  If people were allowed to pursuit freedom at all costs, the world would become a chaotic and dystopian place. People with different beliefs and backgrounds would fight and wars can strike everywhere. Bigotry and racial profiling can damage people’s psyche.

  (c) 当有了一些灵感以后,学生需要去逐个分析和简化PROMPT 给出的perspectives.

  首先,需要把3个比较抽象和复杂的perspectives 简化成很容易被记住的句子。比如:

  The greatest good for the greatest number of people. When the freedom of the individual interferes with that principle, freedom must be restricted.

  Nothing in society is more valuable than freedom.

  When individual behavior to endanger others, we’ve damaged both freedom and health.

  其次,对于每个PERSPECTIVE 开始进行扩展和具象化。可以考虑加入例子,名人名言,个人故事,新闻报刊的报道等等。

  比如:

  Perspective One

  Many times, people’s personal freedom should be balanced with a society’s well-being. When the majority of people’s physical and mental well-being is violated attributing to small numbers of individuals’ request for freedom, the “freedom” should be postponed and even completely curbed.

  Example: in 2008, China’s “Baby milk formula” scandal is a pertinent architype of the topic.

  “Three Deer Group,” a large milk formula company based in China’s Shi Jiazhuang province was scandalized due to its illegal marketing and selling of toxic milk products leading to hundreds of baby’s kidney stone problems and some of their deaths. Though some may argue that the company and its owners have their “freedom” right to conduct such act, and make profit out of it. However, the price of paying the “freedom”- hundreds of babies’ precious lives- is too high to ignore. Processed food is another example.

  Highly processed (chips and soda) and unnatural food (Genetically-modified) contain high-dose chemicals and preservatives with the potential to stimulate severe health problems such as auto-immune diseases and even cancer. Many would argue that these foods should be “freely” sold for their relatively low prices, appealing colors and flavors. However, millions of children are paying the price: obesity and type-2 diabetes are killing their and their next generation’s health. Because of the harm triggered by these foods, MacDonald’s “freedom” of making hamburgers with beef and chicken “rich in” promoting-growth antibiotics is being taken away, and the fast food behemoth is to produce food with fresh ingredients such as antibiotics-free meat.

  Perspective Two

  To be free is not merely to cast-off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others. Nelson Mandela.

  Conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth J.F.K

  The idea of living in a completely demographic, civilized and free society is quixotic. It may exist temporary. The ramification followed by can be devastating. In the short term, allowing free behavior may be satisfying and indulging; in the long term, it can engender disastrous consequence.

  DDT back in 1950s freed farmers from pest invasion. However, DDT went to the water table and cause irreversible soil damage and water contamination.

  Real-estate agents deforested countless acres of forests for building skyscrapers. The result?

  Perspective Three

  The right to avoid health risks is a freedom, too. When we allow individual behavior to endanger others, we’ve damaged both freedom and health.

  Freedom is an abstract and general word. Based on different cases, it has completely different connotations. In this case, different cases should be analyzed differently based on the specific environments.

  Therefore, it is 100% legitimate for public health advocates claiming of their right - avoiding health risks.

  When the context is not right, “freedom” can be transmitted into “sin.” The transmission would kill the freedom and only leave its by-product – devastation.

  (d) 需要注意的是,新ACT写作给出的时间只有40分鈡。这也意味着,将所有BRAINSTORMED 的信息全部放到作文里面是不现实的。这时候最重要的步骤是进行合并和取舍。“ 化繁为简,去糟取精” 是关键。比如说,在笔者来看, 第一个PERSPECTIVE和第二个有着强烈的反比关系。放在一起进行对比,可以创造出英语写作中的 “DRAMA” 效果。又如,第三个和第一个Perspective 都是用来捍卫Public Health 的。所以,把这两段进行合并或者将其中的一段进行比较细节化的描写可以在节约时间的同时达到逻辑清楚,意思清楚的目的。

  综上所述,新ACT写作是一项“耗时耗力”的工作。在已给出的两道范题中可以看出,无论是阅读还是给出的PERSPECTIVES 都相对比较的抽象。于此同时,与当前的世界和美国的流行与公众话题关系密切。依赖所谓的“模板”已经不能满足得到高分的要求。所以,平时对于知名报纸如THE NEWYORK TIMES 和NEWYORKER的各类评论新闻和专栏作家的作品,同学们需要好好的品位并且进行适当的背诵和模仿。当把写作当成是一项修生养性的爱好时,离新ACT的高分也就不远了。

  祝大家屠龙成功!

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