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ACT英语与新SAT语法的比较分析

2015-10-28 10:23

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  一、相同点

  相同点一:标准英语书面语/基本语法点 Standard English Conventions

  无论ACT,现行SAT,还是改革后SAT,基本语法考察点是一致的。诸如:主谓一致、时态、代词、平行结构、比较级、固定搭配等。如下面改革后SAT官方样题:

  When any one of these changes(1) occur, it is likely the result of careful analysis are conducted by transportation planners.

  A) NO CHANGE

  B) occur, they

  C) occurs, they are

  D) occurs, it is

  这道题选择的C,考察的就是主谓一致和代词的指代。而这个知识点在新老SAT中都是会重点考察的。但是值得关注的是,改革后SAT相对弱化了单纯语法部分的考察。在官方出具的改革文件中,语法部分,也就是Standard English Conventions这一部分在改革后占有比重为45%,即44道题中有20道会考察基础语法知识点。而在现行SAT考试中,几乎90%的题目都是考察的语法知识点。所以比重这一点在新老SAT中还是有较大差别的。

  而在ACT文章改错题目中,语法知识点被叫做Usage、Mechanics,包括:标点符号考察,语法用法考察,句子结构考察,在75道文章改错题目中占有40道,占比53%,与改革后SAT语法知识点的考察占比45%差不多。所以基础部分的练习可以完全参考ACT文章改错和现行SAT语法题目。试比较一道ACT文章改错题目:

  As the dancers step to the music, they (8)were also stepping in time to a sound that embodies (9)their unique history and suggests the influence of outside cultures on their music.

  8. F. NO CHANGE

  G. are also stepping

  H. have also stepped

  J. will also step

  9. A. NO CHANG

  B. they’re

  C. it’s

  D. its’

  这两道ACT的题目考察的都是非常基础的时态以及代词的考点。由此可见,在这个层面,现行以及改革后SAT语法部分,以及ACT文章改错部分没有太大差别,可以互相参考。

  相同点二:标点符号Conventions of Punctuation

  标点符号在现行SAT语法考试中占比相对较少,一般是会结合Run-on Sentence/Comma splice考察。但是在SAT改革文件中,官方明确强调要考标点符号,这一点与ACT文章改错要求没有太大差别。我们可以拿两道例题来比较一下:

  新SAT官方样题Sample Writing and Language Set I

  [5] The name Kingman was selected for its two (2) parts,“king” and “man”; Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition. ”

  2. A) NO CHANGE

  B) parts: “king” and “man”

  C) parts “king” and “man”;

  D) parts; “king” and “man”

  ACT Prep Guide

  Around this time the polka music and button accordion played by German immigrant rail-Road (14)workers; left their mark on waila.

  14. F. NO CHANGE

  G. workers

  H. workers;

  J. workers,

  由此对比可以看出,标点符号部分的考察两种考试是非常类似的。

  相同点三:文章结构/逻辑关系 Organization/ Introductions, conclusions, and transitions

  文章结构在改革后SAT中占有一定比重,而这一考点与ACT也是一致的。值得关注的是,在现行SAT考试中的Improving Paragraph 文章改进题中也有相应的考点,通常要求考生在某一个句子的开头插入一个单词或者词组,而考生需要关注上下两段或者两句的逻辑关系。我们拿三道题来比较一下。

  新SAT官方样题Sample Writing and Language Set II

  (4)Next, representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more.

  4. A) NO CHANGE

  B) For instance,

  C) Furthermore,

  D) Similarly,

  ACT Prep Guide

  Today, after many birthdays and New Year’s Days, I now find meaningful the difference I once found confusing. (21)Otherwise, this difference points to significant underlying cultural values.

  21. A. NO CHANGE

  B. Though,

  C. In fact,

  D. Then,

  现行SAT 08年1月真题Improving Paragraph部分

  (5) And yet, even if one does not always accomplish what he or she sets out to do, one gains new knowledge from the attempt.

  32. In context, which of the following is the best replacement for “And yet” in sentence 5?

  (A) Nevertheless

  (B) In other words

  (C) However

  (D) In contrast

  (E) Supposedly

  比较一下这三道题会发现,考察的是考生相同的能力,对于文章结构的把控。在适当位置填入相应逻辑关系词,保证文章上下句结构顺畅完整。

  相同点四:词汇题

  与托福阅读词汇题类似,改革后SAT文章改错与ACT文章改错部分都会考察单词用词是否恰当。在改革后SAT考试中,现行SAT中的填空题被取消,相对弱化了单纯词汇的考察,但是这并不意味着词汇在改革后SAT中完全不会出现。SAT官方正式改革文件关于文章改错部分的考试范围的Effective Language use中提到了 The student will revise text as needed to improve the exactness or content appropriateness of word choice,学生需要根据需求修改文章用词,改进单词的准确性和合适性。而在ACT文章改错题中,这种题型也占有一定比重。试比较以下两道题:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set 1

  [7] Kingman, however, (4)vacated from that tradition in a number of ways, most notably in that he chose to focus not on natural landscapes, such as mountains and rivers, but on cities.

  4. A) NO CHANGE

  B) evacuated

  C) departed

  D) retired

  ACT Prep Guide

  Perhaps the celebration of New Year’s Day in Korean culture is (19) heightened because it is thought of as everyone’s birthday party.

  19. A. NO CHANGE

  B. raised

  C. lifted

  D. lighted

  比较这两道题目,我们可以发现,改革后SAT与ACT在词汇这一部分考察是一样的。但是,值得关注的是,在ACT中有一种类型的词汇题,并不是单纯考察单词含义,而是需要结合整篇文章去推测应该用哪个单词,这个在改革后SAT的样题中并没有相应题目,但是这种考试形式在新SAT中也有可能会出现。我们来看一道例题:

  Many people might be surprised to learn that the American way of computing a person’s age differs from the traditional Korean way. In Korean tradition, a person is considered to be already one year old at the time of his or her birth.

  As a child growing up in two cultures, I found this (16) contest a bit confusing.

  16. F. NO CHANGE

  G. change

  H. dispute

  J. difference

  这道题需要我们将文章第一段整体总结概括,选出相应的单词,而并不是通过单词所在句去判断。这种类型的词汇题在目前的改革后SAT官方样题中并没有出现,但是在正式的改革后SAT中也是会有一定概率出现,因为这种题型与改革后SAT强调考生需要根据文章去推断作者用词这一点并不矛盾。

  相同点五:句子逻辑顺序题Logical sequence

  新SAT要求考生能够判断某个句子应该放置在文章中的哪个合适的位置。这种考点在现行SAT语法的Improving Paragraph 修改文章题目中也有所考察。试比较三种题型:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set 1

  [1] Kingman was keenly interested in landscape painting from an

  early age. [2] In Hong Kong, where Kingman completed his schooling, teachers at that time customarily assigned students a formal “school name.” [3] His interest was so keen, in fact, that he was named after it. [4] The young boy who had been called Dong Moy Shu became Dong Kingman.

  5. For the sake of the cohesion of this paragraph, sentence 3

  should be placed

  A) where it is now.

  B) before sentence 1.

  C) after sentence 1.

  D) after sentence 4.

  ACT Prep Guide

  文章略

  15. Upon reviewing this essay and finding that some information

  has been left out, the writer composes the following sentence incorporating that information:

  Those same German influences helped spawn a similar musical form in northern Mexico known as norteno.

  This sentence would most logically be placed after the last sentence in Paragraph.

  A. 1.

  B. 2.

  C. 3.

  D. 4.

  2010年1月SAT语法题目Improving Paragraph

  文章略

  35. In context, where should the following sentence be placed?

  It presents problems of its own, however.

  (A) Before sentence 2

  (B) Before sentence 4

  (C) Before sentence 8

  (D) Before sentence 9

  (E) Before sentence 12

  相同点六:主旨题Proposition

  改革后SAT要求考生能够准确识别出哪个选项可以清晰的表达段落主旨,而这个考点与ACT文章改错考点也是一致的,试比较:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set 1

  His fine brushwork conveys detailed street-level activity: a peanut vendor pushing his cart on the sidewalk, a pigeon pecking for crumbs around a fire hydrant, an old man tending to a baby outside a doorway. His broader brushstrokes and sponge-painted shapes create majestic city skylines, with skyscrapers towering in the background, bridges connecting neighborhoods on either side of a river, and enormous ships maneuvering out of a busy harbor. To art critics and fans alike, these city scenes represent the innovative spirit of twentieth-century urban Modernism.

  Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of the paragraph?

  A) Kingman is considered a pioneer of the California Style school of painting.

  B) Although cities were his main subject, Kingman did occasionally paint natural landscapes.

  C) In his urban landscapes, Kingman captures the vibrancy of crowded cities.

  D) In 1929 Kingman moved to Oakland, California, where he attended the Fox Art School.

  ACT Prep Guide

  (33)Kevin and his parents believed that his constitutional rights had been violated.

  33. Given that all of the choices are true, which one would most effectively introduce the main idea of this paragraph?

  A. NO CHANGE

  B. The principal said dungarees and blue jeans were the same thing, so Kevin should have known better.

  C. If Kevin’s jeans had been dirty and torn, the principal might have been justified in expelling him.

  D. These events occurred in a time of social unrest, and emotions were running high.

  比较一下可以看出来,两种题型尽管有细微差别,但是考察的本质考点是一样的,都是考察的文章主旨。

  相同点七:简化句子题Concision

  改革后SAT要求考生能够发现文章用词是否简洁,避免不必要的啰嗦。能用简洁的表达就不用啰嗦的表达,这一点在现行SAT的Improving Sentence题目中也是一个偶尔会考到的题型。试比较:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set 2

  If analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the (3)current road as it is designed at this time can efficiently accommodate the road right now, the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane.

  3. A) NO CHANGE

  B) current design of

  C) road as it is now currently designed

  D) current design of the road

  ACT Prep Guide

  For some people, traditional American Indian music is (1)associated and connected with high penetrating vocals accompanied by a steady drumbeat.

  1. A. NO CHANGE

  B. connected by some of them

  C. linked by association

  D. associated

  比较两道题目会发现,两道题考察方向以及形式完全一致,都是考察句子的简洁,删除句子中的冗余或者重复的信息。

  相同点八:句法题/合并句子题Syntax

  改革后SAT有一类题型叫做Syntax句法题,题目要求为:The student will use various sentence structures to accomplish needed rhetorical purposes. 也就是说,考生需要用不同的句式去完成句子的修辞目的,例如,将两句话合并成一句话的题型,而这种题型在现行SAT中也会考察。试比较:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set 1

  During his career, Kingman exhibited his work (7)internationally. He

  garnered much acclaim.

  7. Which choice most effectively combines the sentences at the underlined portion?

  A) internationally, and Kingman also garnered

  B) internationally; from exhibiting, he garnered

  C) internationally but garnered

  D) internationally, garnering

  ACT Prep Guide

  Others have followed Lydia Mendoza’s lead (28)and have immigrated to the United States from Mexico.

  28. Given that all of the choices are true, which one would most effectively tie together the two main subjects of this essay?

  F. NO CHANGE

  G. and have expanded the influence of Tejano music.

  H. such as Santiago Jiménez and his son Flaco.

  J. and have signed large recording contracts.

  09年5月SAT语法部分Improving Paragraph

  Which of the following is the best way to revise the underlined material and combine sentences 6 and 7 (reproduced below) ?

  Shakespeare‘s plays are very sophisticated. The plays reveal that whoever wrote them was very familiar with politics, foreign languages, and classical Greek and Latin.

  (A) The plays attributed to Shakespeare are very sophisticated, revealing that

  (B) He also wrote very sophisticated plays, so they know that

  (C) In contrast, Shakespeare’s plays are very sophisticated, which reveals that

  (D) Who would question that they are sophisticated and that they reveal that

  (E) Whoever wrote it was very sophisticated; his plays reveal

  以上三种题型都是在考察Syntax中的合并句子题,虽然考试形式有细微差别,但是考察学生的能力是一样的。

  相同点九:限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

  在现行SAT语法考试中,限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句考察的非常少,并没有非常明确到考到过两者的区别,但是在改革后SAT语法考试范围中明确强调:The student will correctly use punctuation(commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive and parenthetical elements as well as recognize and correct cases in which restrictive or essential sentence elements are inappropriately set off with punctuation. 简言之就是考生需要利用标点符号区分限定成分,插入语,非限定成分。这一点在ACT文章改错题中也是占有一定比重的。试比较:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set 2

  (5)People who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds.

  5. A) NO CHANGE

  B) People, who pursue careers in transportation planning,

  C) People who pursue careers, in transportation planning,

  D) People who pursue careers in transportation planning,

  ACT Prep Guide

  For years I had seen (52) other Miami’s pictures—many of them the ancestors of the people, who walked along with me,

  52. F. NO CHANGE

  G. people who, walked along with me to the longhouse that summer evening.

  H. people, who walked along, with me

  J. people who walked along with me

  仔细对比两道题会惊奇的发现,两道题几乎如出一辙。

  相同点十:Transition题

  现行SAT语法Improving Paragraph中,会以句子插入题的形式考察学生对于文章衔接过渡的把控,这个考点在改革后SAT语法题目中以修改句子题的形式得以保留,而ACT中也有一类题型就叫Transition题,两种题型在改革后SAT和ACT中是一样的,试比较:

  改革后SAT Sample Writing and Language Set

  ACT Prep Guide

  两道题目考察方向基本一致。

  相同点十一、定向修改题

  编辑推荐:

  2015-2016年ACT考试时间

  美国Top50大学ACT考试成绩平均分

(编辑:马菲)

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