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微观经济重要概念性考点

2017-03-15 14:34

来源:APCLUB

作者:熊郁

  点击查看:AP微积分2016盘点及2017备考规划

  微观经济学这门学科在一些人眼里是文科,在一些人眼里是理科,但是到研究生阶段我们会发现那些本科学习物理学或工程类学科的同学似乎能更好的适应高级微观的学习,原因是我们看到的每一个符合常识的经济学原理背后都有一些严格的假设和推导,经济学本身是一个非常要求逻辑思维的学科,但是在AP阶段只要求我们理解和掌握概念,以至于许多概念之间缺乏联系,所以看起来更像文科了。这里我给出了学习经济学需要了解的重要概念并尝试让它们联系起来。

  1. Scarcity

  Society has insufficient productive resources to fulfill unlimited human wants and needs.

  2. Resource allocation problem:

  The assignment of available resources to various uses.

  经济学研究的问题是资源分配问题,所以我们要问三个问题,资源该怎么用,用来干什么,为谁而用?

  3. Three basic economic problems?

  What to produce?

  How to produce?

  To whom the products allocated?

  4. Factors in production

  Inputs used to produce goods and services.

  要研究清楚资源的使用我们就会在意生产每种商品究竟需要什么样的投入。

  5. Microeconomics

  How household sand firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets.

  6. Macroeconomics

  Economy-wide phenomena, including inflation, unemployment, and economic growth.

  研究资源的分配从既可以从个人的角度,也可以从整体的角度。个人作为消费者要分配收入在消费品上,个人作为生产者要分配生产资源在产品上,而整个国家要分配有限的资源去尽量快和多的生产物质产品满足人们的不同需求,提高生活质量。

  7. Normative statements

  What the economy should go and what intervention should be adopted?

  8. Positive statements

  What is the economy like and what happened?

  对于资源应该怎么实现分配,会有不一样的看法,有些再问是什么样的问的是事实,有些再说应该怎么样比较好,说的是观点。

  9. Productivity

  Amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker’s time.

  我们会觉得生产效率高意味着资源能够更有效的被利用,这是资源能够有效分配的第一步。

  10. Central planning channels resource:

  Inputs are based on direct allocation. Centralized manner depending on the specific organization of economic institutions.(price will not have directing power).

  11. Markets channels resource:

  Decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on the interplay of supply and demand, which(market)determines the prices of goods and services.

  市场在资源分配中起的是平台的作用,价格会导流资源去到最有利可图(最多需求)的地方,亚当斯密称之为看不见的手;集中计划的方式则是某个人或某个机构以命令的方式去分配资源,这种机制的坏处在于分配资源的问题太复杂且会参杂私人利益。

  12. Opportunity cost:

  The value (not a benefit) of the choice of a best alternative lost while making a decision.

  经济学和会计学的一个区别是,会计学记录看的到的现金成本或资本,而经济学衡量的是做选择本身的成本或收益,不论这个成本看不看得到。

  13. Market power:

  The ability of a single person orfirm to unduly influencemarket prices.

  为了让市场作为平台的作用发挥的好且不偏不倚,我们希望市场是自由的,也就是说没有人能够一家独大,我们用市场力量来衡量是否会有厂商直接影响市场。

  14. PPF

  Graphical representation of possible combination of two goods with constant resources and technology.

  PPF会给出在现有的生产水平下,最有效率的利用资源能够生产出的最多的产品组合,我们要做的选择是在生产已经有有效率的前提下,去选择哪种商品组合作为这个社会需要的。

  15. Absolute advantage:

  Ability of a party (anindividual, or firm, or country) to produce a greater quantity of a good, product, or service than competitors,using the same amount of resources.

  16. Comparative advantage:

  Agents have acomparative advantage over others in producing a particular good if they can produce that good at a lower relative opportunity cost or autarky price.

  国际贸易的基础是,有人能够花比我低的成本生产某商品,我自己的资源可以省着去做别的,通过国际贸易,本国的资源分配能够更加有效率。

  17. Asymmetric information

  In decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other. This creates an imbalance of power in transactions.

  不对称信息也是造成市场这个平台不能有效分配资源的原因,在信息不对称里,买方和卖方知道的信息不一样会造成交易不顺畅甚至无法达成交易,市场作为资源的分配作用会被破坏。

  18. Ceteris paribus

  All other things being equal.

  我们只所以需要这个条件是因为,社会里的经济状况太过复杂,我们需要一件件变量隔离来看,确定到底哪些因素会造成什么样的变化,再综合来看,这就是为什么一定要把需求和攻击分开来看,最后决定价格。

  19. Demand

  A buyer's willingness and ability to pay a price for a specific quantity of a good or service.

  20. PED

  The percentage change in quantity demanded given a percent change in the price.

  21. XED

  Measure the demand quantity change from the price change of relevant good.

  22. YED

  Measure the demand quantity change from income changes.

  23. Willingness to pay

  Maximum price at or below which a consumer will definitely buy one unit of the product.

  24. Consumer surplus

  The difference between the maximum price aconsumer is willing to pay and the actual price they do pay.

  25. Law of diminishing marginal returns

  Diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.(ceteris paribus)

  26. Explicit cost

  A direct payment made to others in the course of running a business, such as wage, rent and materials.

  27. Implicit cost

  Is the opportunity cost equal to what a firm must give up in order to use a factor of production for which it already owns and thus does not pay rent.(foregone income from choosing not to work).

  28. Accounting profit

  Total revenue – total explicit cost.

  29. Economic profit

  Total revenue – total cost (explicit+implicit)

  Economic profit =0: normal economic profit

  30. Supply curve

  In the goods market, supply is the amount of a product that producers are willing to sell at various given prices when all other factors are held constant. (ceteris paribus).

  31. Producer surplus:

  The difference between the minimum price a producer is willing to sell and the actual price they do to sell.

  32. Equilibrium:

  Economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced.

  In goods market, equilibrium price stands for aprice that sellers sold the same amount that buyers want to buy (clearance).

  33. Market structure

  Characterization of how market operates differently

  How many producers?

  How many buyers?

  What do buyers know about product?

  How products differ from each other?

  Is producer easy to entry or exit?

  34. Perfect competition

  1. There are numerous sellers and buyers

  2. Both are price taker in market

  3. Free move for producer

  4. Homogeneous products

  35. Monopoly

  Unique supplier in the market

  No substitutes

  Price maker

  36. Oligopoly:

  1. Two or several supplier

  2. Barriers to entry

  3. Product differentiation or homogeneous

  4. Non-price competition

  5. Interdependence

  37. Monopolistic competition

  1. Every producer has its own market demand

  2. Good in every market is substitutes

  3. Markets are interdependent

  38. Production efficiency

  No additional output can be obtained without increasing the amount of inputs.(lowest ATC).

  39. Allocative efficiency

  Any changes made to assist one person would harm another

  (Equilibrium price= MC=AC)

  Market can be said to have allocative efficiency if the price of a product that the market is supplying is equal to the marginal value consumers place on it, and equals marginal cost.

  40. Excludable

  Individual can be effectively exclude from use.

  41. Rivalrous

  One individual reduce availability to others.

  42. Externality

  The cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

  43. Negative externality

  An economic activity that imposes a negative effect on an unrelated third party.

  【作者简介】

  熊郁,深圳新东方学校教师,毕业于南开大学经济学和心理学双学位,浸淫于资本主义美帝西敏大学商学院半年,后又去往香港中文大学攻读了经济学硕士。于是成为了一个心理学里逻辑思维和批判性思维最好的,经济学里对心理学最了解,最不死板的研究僧。长处在于能非常快的理解不同的学生,追求简洁,逻辑,效率和成长的教育方式。

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